The day set by law for United States citizens to elect public officials into office is known as Election Day. Election Day always occurs the first Tuesday after the first Monday of every November, meaning that every year election day falls between or on November 2 and November 8.
Elections for federal offices only take place on even-numbered years, and the election of President and Vice President of the United States occurs every four years. Elections for the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate are held every two years. “Midterm elections” are elections in which a presidential candidate is not on the ballot. Those who are elected start their terms in January of the upcoming year. State and local government offices are often elected on Election Day as well to stay cost effective.
November was selected as the time Election Day would be held because in agrarian societies, the year’s harvest was done at this point and the cold winter had not quite set in yet. Because most people used to travel far distances to vote, and usually did not travel on Sundays for religious reasons, Election Day was set to be on a Tuesday because Monday would be spent traveling. November 1 was never chosen to be an Election Day because most shop keepers would do their books this day, and others would celebrate All Saints Day.
Some states consider Election Day a work holiday including Delaware, Hawaii, Kentucky, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, West Virginia, and the territory of Puerto Rico. Other states allow their employees to get paid time off to vote.
For more interesting Election Day facts, go here!